Inducing anesthesia (lack of sensation or feeling) before surgery or certain procedures that do not require skeletal muscle relaxation. It may also be used for other conditions as determined by your doctor.Ketamine is an anesthetic. It works in the brain to inhibit painful sensations.Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection, USP is a rapid-acting, nonnarcotic, nonbarbiturate agent for anesthetic use in cats and for restraint in subhuman primates. It is chemically designated dl2-(o-chlorophenyl)-2-(methyl-amino) cyclohexanone hydrochloride and is supplied as a slightly acid (pH 3.5 to 5.5) solution for intramuscular injection in a concentration containing the equivalent of 100 mg ketamine base per milliliter and contains not more than 0.1 mg/mL benzethonium chloride as a preservative.Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection, USP Indications,Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection, USP may be used in cats for restraint or as the sole anesthetic agent for diagnostic or minor, brief, surgical procedures that do not require skeletal muscle relaxation. It may be used in subhuman primates for restraint.
Before using ketamine:Some medical conditions may interact with ketamine. Tell your doctor or pharmacist if you have any medical conditions, especially if any of the following apply to you:if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding,if you are taking any prescription or nonprescription medicine, herbal preparation, or dietary supplement,if you have allergies to medicines, foods, or other substances if you have a history of head trauma or injury, bleeding in the brain, a stroke, increased spinal fluid pressure, increased pressure in the eye, bladder or urinary problems, heart problems (eg, congestive heart failure), high blood pressure, mental or mood problems, or thyroid problems if you have a history of alcoholism or you are intoxicated by alcohol Some MEDICINES MAY INTERACT with ketamine. Tell your health care provider if you are taking any other medicines, especially any of the following:Amiodarone or droxidopa because serious side effects, such as abnormal heart rhythms, may occur,This may not be a complete list of all interactions that may occur. Ask your health care provider if ketamine may interact with other medicines that you take. Check with your health care provider before you start, stop, or change the dose of any medicine. Take morphine exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Follow all directions on your prescription label. Morphine can slow or stop your breathing, especially when you start using this medicine or whenever you dose is changed. Never take morphine in larger amounts, or for longer than prescribed. Tell your doctor if the medicine seems to stop working as well in relieving your pain.Morphine may be habit-forming, even at regular doses. Never share this medicine with another person, especially someone with a history of drug abuse or addiction. MISUSE OF NARCOTIC MEDICINE CAN CAUSE ADDICTION, OVERDOSE, OR DEATH, especially in a child or other person using the medicine without a prescription. Selling or giving away morphine to any other person is against the law.Always check your bottle to make sure you have received the correct pills (same brand and type) of medicine prescribed by your doctor. Ask the pharmacist if you have any questions about the medicine you receive at the pharmacy.Stop taking all other around-the-clock narcotic pain medications when you start taking morphine.Do not crush, chew, or break an extended-release tablet. Swallow it whole to avoid exposure to a potentially fatal dose.To make swallowing easier, you may open the Avinza capsule and sprinkle the medicine into a spoonful of applesauce. Swallow right away without chewing. Do not save the mixture for later use.Measure liquid medicine with a special dose-measuring spoon or medicine cup, not with a regular table spoon. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one.Take the medicine at the same time each day.Do not stop using morphine suddenly, or you could have unpleasant withdrawal symptoms. Ask your doctor how to safely stop using this medicine.Never crush or break a morphine pill to inhale the powder or mix it into a liquid to inject the drug into your vein. This practice has resulted in death with the misuse of morphine and similar prescription drugs.Store at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and light.Keep track of the amount of medicine used from each new bottle. Morphine is a drug of abuse and you should be aware if anyone is using your medicine improperly or without a prescription.Do not keep leftover morphine pills or liquid. Ask your pharmacist where to locate a drug take-back disposal program. If there is no take-back program, flush any unused pills or liquid down the toilet. Disposal of medicines by flushing is recommended to reduce the danger of accidental overdose causing death. This advice applies to a very small number of medicines only. The FDA, working with the manufacturer, has determined this method to be the most appropriate route of disposal and presents the least risk to human safety.
Effects on the Central Nervous System (CNS): The principal therapeutic action of morphine is analgesia. Other therapeutic effects of morphine include anxiolysis, euphoria and feelings of relaxation. Although the precise mechanism of the analgesic action is unknown, specific CNS opiate receptors and endogenous compounds with morphine-like activity have been identified throughout the brain and spinal cord and are likely to play a role in the expression and perception of analgesic effects. As with all drugs in the opiate class, morphine can cause respiratory depression, in part by a direct effect on the brainstem respiratory centers. Morphine and related opiates depress the cough reflex by direct effect on the cough center in the medulla. Antitussive effects may occur with doses lower than those usually required for analgesia. Morphine may cause miosis, even in total darkness. Pinpoint pupils are a sign of opiate overdose; however, when asphyxia is present during opiate overdose, marked mydriasis occurs.Effects on the Gastrointestinal Tract and on Other Smooth Muscle: Gastric, biliary and pancreatic secretions are decreased by morphine. Morphine causes a reduction in motility and is associated with an increase in tone in the antrum of the stomach and duodenum. Digestion of food in the small intestine is delayed and propulsive contractions are decreased. Propulsive peristaltic waves in the colon are decreased, while tone can be increased to the point of spasm, often resulting in constipation. Morphine can cause a marked increase in biliary tract pressure as a result of spasm of the sphincter of Oddi. Morphine may also cause spasm of the sphincter of the urinary bladder.